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Authorized by Royal Decree on March 8, This decoration is awarded to those, not in the Navy, who have risked their lives to save others from drowning, or shipwreck, or for other forms of personal valour at sea. It is issued by the Ministry of the Marine. The medal is in silver and in bronze only and is not to be worn on the person.

Authorized by a Decree of May 6, This medal was awarded to all persons, including many foreigners, who from philanthropic or charitable motives went to the relief of the inhabitants of Sicily and Southern Calabria at the time of the earthquake of December 2 8, It is 34 mm. The ribbon is green with a white stripe on either side. The ribbon for this has 5 stripes, alternately white and green. The writer possesses an interesting medal, for the official issuance of which no authority has been found. It is of silver, 33 mm.

Under the bust, the letters S. The ribbon is dark blue with a yellow stripe each side. It is believed that these medals were given to the veteran soldiers of Charles Albert who made the pilgrimage to his last resting place. In its church rest the remains of the Princes of Savoy. Charles Albert — died at Oporto in His body was buried on the heights of Superga.

Italy later recognized his devotion, and pilgrims still journey to his tomb. Italy was not backward in awarding what are commonly known as Campaign or Service Medals but which the Italian authorities style " Medaglie Commemorative. It was authorized on October 22, , and was issued to the Piedmont troops serving during that campaign under General La Marmora.

The medal is of silver, 35 mm. The ribbon is light blue with a narrow gold edge. Some authorities assign a ribbon of the Italian National colours—red, white and green. This medal was issued to commemorate the dethronement of Ferdinand II and the union of the ancient Kingdom of Sicily with the Kingdom of Italy. As a result of that insurrection, Garibaldi with his thousand troops landed at Marsala, and in three weeks was master of Messina. The medal 30 mm. The ribbon is red, with one white and one green edge. Here might appropriately be mentioned a unique decoration. On January 9, , General Turr went to the island of Caprera to carry to that great Italian patriot, General Giuseppe Garibaldi — , the Star of Honour which his famous thousand companions had offered him.

It is a gold star of seven points, loosely set with diamonds. In the centre on a blue-enamelled field in letters of gold is ARTURO a star which is said to protect any one with an ideal. On this is super-imposed a gold Trinacria , the emblem of Sicily. This was the only decoration which that great General consented to wear; and after his death at Caprera on June 2, , the star was given by his sons to the Quirinal Museum in Rome where it may now be seen.

Issued by the city of Palermo, and authorized by the Italian government in The obverse has in the centre an eagle with raised wings, standing on a fillet inscribed S. The medal was issued in silver and in bronze. The ribbon is bright red, with a gold stripe each side, and on the face of the ribbon is fastened a silver Trinacria , the emblem of Sicily.

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This decoration was authorized in It is of silver, and 32 mm. The ribbon is composed of six narrow stripes of the National colours—green, white and red. Bars or barrets are issued in silver to be attached to the ribbon, as follows: — war with Austria , — Crimean War , war with Austria , — Garibaldi's expedition in Sicily and the Campaign in central Italy , war with Austria , Campaign against Rome , and Capture of Rome. This medal was authorized in It is 32 mm. The ribbon has a broad green stripe with a white and a red stripe on both sides. Unlike the British campaign medals, few of the Italian medals are inscribed on the edges.

Created on November 3, ; sometimes called the "Medal for Abyssinia. The medal was issued in bronze, 32 mm. The ribbon is red with blue borders. To all those taking part in this expedition, and to those who remained as guardians of the territory until the end of the year , this medal was given.

It is of bronze, 32 mm. The ribbon is yellow, with four dark blue stripes. Another medal for China is exactly like the above, excepting that the reverse bears the word CINA only. This was given to the troops and sailors who served in China from December 31, to April 1, The ribbon is similar. But a few years ago Italy and Turkey were fighting desperately for the control of Tripoli, a section of Northern Africa which had been under Turkish rule for several centuries.

It was at this time that Germany all but precipitated a European war by insisting upon certain methods of settlement. Fortunately conflict was averted by the treaty of Lausanne. To commemorate the triumph over Turkey and to honor those engaged there, a silver medal of 32 mm. The medal was issued to all men of the Army and Navy who took part in the operations against the Ottoman Empire, whether in Africa or in Turkish territory.

The ribbon is of six narrow blue and five narrow red stripes of equal width. The treaty of Lausanne did not stop all war operations on the part of Italy. The tribes of the newly acquired Colonial possessions continued to make trouble. To reward the troops taking part in such campaigns, a silver medal of 32 mm. The ribbon is of the same design and colour. Authorized in It was awarded to those worthy of official recognition during the World War, but whose service was not of sufficient importance to warrant the Medal of Military Valour. The Decoration is of bronze, 38 mm. On the lower arm of the cross is an upright sword entwined with a branch of oak.

The reverse has a star in the centre surrounded by rays. The ribbon is dark blue with two white stripes. Created on July 29, and made from captured Austrian cannon. It is bronze, 32 mm. The ribbon has eighteen narrow stripes of green, white and red—six of each colour. Bars were issued to be worn on the ribbon to designate the years of service in the war. These bear the dates of , , and Created on December 16, , but not issued until The medal is bronze, 36 mm. As with the Victory medals of the other allies, the winged Victory is the dominant feature. This figure stands facing on a triumphal chariot drawn by four lions.

The reverse shows a tripod above which two doves of peace are to be seen. The badge is suspended by the rainbow ribbon as are all the Victory medals. This medal is awarded to mothers who lost sons in the World War. The obverse shows an allegorical figure presenting a wreath to a fallen warrior. Standing alongside is another female in an attitude of grief. The ribbon is grey with center composed of narrow green, white and red stripes. This medal has also been authorized but no information has been received concerning it. This medal has not as yet been distributed and details concerning it are lacking.

It is to be sold and the money received is to go to the widows and mothers of those killed in the war. Notice has been received that a medal will be issued shortly to those who volunteered in the World War. At this writing, and before any confirmation could be secured, advices have come that the Councils of Ministers have proposed a decoration to be awarded to clerks and workingmen who have remained faithful to their employers for twenty-five years or more. Presumably this medal is intended to stimulate a spirit of co-operation between the employed and employer.

No decision as to the design has been announced. Several of the municipalities of Northern Italy issued medals to honor those who aided in the efforts to free that country during the strenuous days of — None of these medals of the cities are official medals, and consequently few if any of the authorities mention them.

They are inserted here in order that the numismatist may have some facts relating to them. The ribbons for the above medals are red and white. Milano likewise had a medal to show her appreciation of the efforts of her citizens for freedom. It bears on the obverse a figure of Victory and the dome of the Cathedral. The ribbon is red and yellow. Cadore, Vicenza and Brescia are also said to have issued medals, but a dependable description has not been obtainable. During the war of — against Austria , and the several Principalities of which Italy is now composed, Rome, too, became involved.

On February 9, , Rome was declared a Republic. To those who took part in the Insurrection, and who aided in the formation of the short-lived Republic, as well as for connection with subsequent events, Rome awarded several medals. As with the others, authentic information is difficult to obtain.

Issued for the battle of Vicenza on June 10, This medal was of both silver and bronze, and 30 mm. On the obverse within a wreath of oak leaves, the Arms of the city of Rome—a crowned shield, bearing the letters S. On a plain reverse is the motto. The ribbon is of equal stripes of magenta and yellow—the colours of Rome. Issued in silver and bronze. The obverse has in the centre, the she-wolf with Romulus and Remus.

The ribbon is similar to the preceding. Struck in silver and bronze, and is said to have been issued by the Republic of Rome to those who distinguished themselves during the Insurrection of The ribbon is magenta and yellow. Another medal is described by one authority as a reward to the combatants of It is 23 mm. At her feet is a globe surmounted by an eagle. Above is a rayed star.

No ribbon is described. According to Padiglione still another Medal of Merit was issued in commemoration of September 20, , when Rome was admitted into the Kingdom of Italy. Sculfort, a French writer, says this medal was given to commemorate the proclamation of the Republic of Rome in ; although preference is here given to the Italian authority's version. The medal was issued in silver and bronze, 30 mm.

On the obverse is a shield bearing the Arms of the City, surmounted by the she-wolf with Romulus and Remus. This device rests upon two crossed battle axes and an oak wreath. The ribbon has narrow alternating stripes of magenta and yellow.

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Some ribbons have nineteen stripes; others have eleven. Battle of Vicenza. Medal of Merit. Even more so than with Italy proper, Sicily has been a battle-ground from the earliest times. And this condition, as is usually the case, has made the numismatics of Sicily of great importance. Before the period of coinage, the Sikels dwelt in the land. Later the Carthaginians disputed with the Greeks for its control, both yielding ultimately to the Romans. In addition to the struggles between the Normans and the Spaniards for its possession, it had to withstand the onslaught of the Saracens.

Sicily , especially in the mediaeval period, has shared the fate of the kingdom of Naples , or, as they came to be known, the Kingdom of the two Sicilies—a title which in itself is a commentary of the relative importance of Naples. After the Lombard rule in the 11th century, the Normans, under Count Roger, brought about a consolidation of Naples and Sicily. The conquest dates from a. There were two periods of separation— to and to , but after the last-named year the two kingdoms remained under one crown until the unification of Italy in It is unnecessary here to dwell upon the constantly changing rule for the two kingdoms more than to mention the conflict between the House of Anjou and of Aragon through the 14th and 15th centuries.

They were followed by the Austrians until After that date Spanish Bourbons held possession. The Napoleonic rule on the mainland dates from , while Ferdinand IV controlled the island of Sicily. The downfall of Napoleon at Waterloo saw the two kingdoms again united under the Bourbons. The wars for the independence of Italy , and the efforts of Garibaldi in and , finally brought both sections into the Kingdom of Italy and under the rule of the house of Savoy.

In , St. Upon his death in , his brother, Charles d'Anjou , established this order in the Kingdom of Naples. Owing to the design of the collar, this order is sometimes given a third name—The Order of the Sea Shell. The insignia was a gold collar of scallop shells, alternating with double crescents. From this was suspended a medal with a ship as its design. Apparently, therefore, this is a survival or a later form of the Order of the Double Crescent.

Ashmole quotes St. Marthes as giving as the date for its foundation. The order was not popular, and those honoured with it were afraid to wear the badge. The insignia consisted of three gold chains from which is suspended a gold crescent, bearing three letters in red, L. To the crescent were attached gold tags indicating the battles and feats of honour in which the knights had been engaged.

Aragon controlled the Island Kingdom of Sicily from to This insignia was a Maltese cross, in the centre of which is an eight-pointed star. This Order seems to have been discontinued in Giustinian, the Italian writer in , gives a list of eighteen Grand Masters of the Order of the Crescent Moon and of the Star from to This would seem to indicate that the Orders described above were connected or continued by the several rulers under different titles.

The insignia is a white-enamelled cross, each of the arms having double points. A spur is attached at the base. The Order was shortlived. Created in by Louis of Taranto when he married the Queen of Naples. The insignia is a knot of cord entwined with gold thread. This Order, of short duration, was instituted by partisans of the house of Anjou, during the troubles of — The insignia is a yarn reel and a lioness, the significance of which is difficult to learn.

Clark, writing in , states that the followers of Louis II, Duke of Anjou, were divided into two factions, one of which wore on its arms an embroidered reel as a sign of contempt for Queen Margaret, widow of Charles III, who desired to hold the reins of government. This faction took the name of "Knights of the Reel. He was led into this war by his brother-in-law, Marinus Marcianus, Duke of Sesso, who conspired to murder Ferdinand. Marinus Was not only pardoned for his treachery but was admitted into this Order.

The badge is a gold ermine suspended from a gold chain. Authorities differ as to the exact date of both the creating and discontinuance of this Order. Attributed to Alphonse by Perrot and by De Genouillac. The date of its founding is given as As Alphonse died in and was succeeded by his son, Ferdinand I, who reigned until , it may, therefore, have been instituted by Ferdinand.

No description of the insignia can be found. No other record has been found. Charles was of the Spanish Bourbons, and second son of Philip V. His army had conquered Sicily , and he became its King in at the age of eighteen, having previously borne the titles of Duke of Parma and Grand-Duke of Tuscany. At the Peace Treaty following that conflict, he recovered Florida for Spain from England , to whom it had been ceded in Relics of this Saint, to whom miraculous cures are attributed, are preserved in the cathedral named for him in that city.

When the French invaded Naples in , the Order was abolished in that country, though it continued in Sicily , whither Ferdinand had fled. It was revived after At the present time it is classed among the non-active Orders of Italy. There are two classes: Knights and Honorary Knights. The badge of the Order is a gold Maltese cross, enamelled red with white edges; gold Bourbon lilies in angles. The obverse centre has a figure the patron saint, San Genaro, clad in a robe and hat, with an open book in the hand. The reverse shows an open book two receptacles partly filled with the miraculous blood of this martyr.

The ribbon bright red. Instituted by Royal Decree of October 22, , by King Charles, its purpose was to reward citizens and members of the army and navy who had shown exceptional zeal and fidelity to the crown. This Order supposedly never received the Apostolic confirmation of the Pope, and according to an Italian writer, Ruo, was shortlived, all record of its existence having been lost when Charles, its founder, assumed the throne of Spain in The decoration is a four-aimed cross, each arm terminating in the form of a lily, and the whole surmounted by a royal crown.

The centre medallion bears the image of Saint Charles. No description of the reverse is given. The ribbon is violet. It was instituted in commemoration of his having been restored to his Kingdom after the defeat of the French by the united forces of England , Austria , Russia and Turkey.

The object of the Order was to reward the Neapolitans who had remained faithful to the King and his monarchy. Lord Nelson , Duke of Bronte, was one of the first foreigners to have this Order bestowed upon him. He was made a Knight of the Grand Cross. It was continued in Sicily until but is said to have been definitely abolished in The cross of this Order is a gold star of six branches, in the form of rays. In the angles are Bourbon lilies. The whole is surmounted by a crown of gold. The gold-centred medallion bears a figure of St.

Ferdinand in Royal robes and crowned, holding a laurel wreath in the left and a sword in his right hand. The reverse centre of gold is inscribed FERD. ANNO The plaque of the Order is similar to the obverse of the cross, without the crown. A dark blue ribbon with red edges is used for suspension of the cross. This was 33 mm. This was worn with a similar ribbon. Officers and privates of the Army and Navy were awarded this medal for distinguished services. Ferdinand IV instituted a medal of silver for the Neapolitan troops who assisted him in the campaign in Lombardy against the French in This was 38 mm.

In the exergue, E. This medal was of gold and awarded by Ferdinand IV to the troops who distinguished themselves in the Siena campaign in On the obverse is an allegorical figure of a woman crowning a soldier with a laurel wreath. In the exergue is E. The ribbon is blue and white, edged with narrower stripes of blue Sculfort, p. To reward those who valiantly assisted him to hold his kingdom, Ferdinand IV instituted this Medal of Honour. It is 35 mm. The obverse of the medal has a bust of the king facing to right, the head wearing a helmet, laurel wreathed and surmounted by a dragon.

Joachim Murat , when ruler, modified the Order in ; its purpose was to reward those who had assisted in the conquest of the country. The decoration is a red-enamelled star of five points, ball tipped and with gold edges. Above this is the Imperial eagle surmounted by a crown. In the centre medallion is the Arms of Sicily , a Trinacria or Triquetra, having a face in the centre. This medallion is surrounded by the title, JOS. The ribbon is dark blue with a red stripe in centre. Following the death of Murat on October 13, , the Kingdom was restored to Ferdinand IV, who changed the design of the above decoration.

The star was attached to the surmounting crown by a lily replacing the eagle. Pio Forte Augusto. The ribbon was changed to azure blue with a red stripe in the centre. Ruo, the Italian writer, states that the inscription on the obverse is Gioacchino Napoleone , but the previous description is taken from a medal and various French authorities. Murat authorized another Medal of Honour on November 1, , to reward the guard of Naples for its devotion to his cause. It is of gold and silver, in the form of a wreath of oak and laurel leaves, tied with a ribbon and surmounted by a crown.

Superimposed on the wreath are two crossed flags, enamelled in the colours of the kingdom. The ribbon is magenta. After the death of Murat at Pizzo , a medal of 38 mm. It was issued in gold and silver, and worn with a bright red ribbon. By decrees of August 9 and 30, , bronze medals were authorized and awarded to soldiers and sailors who were faithful to the cause of Ferdinand IV. This is a green-enamelled Maltese cross with gold Bourbon lilies in each angle. This was worn with a red ribbon. Created on May 30, , and issued in gold and silver; it was worn with a Bourbon red ribbon.

The medal is surrounded by a wreath of oak leaves and surmounted by a crown, attached by laurel branches. This order was created on January 1, , by Ferdinand IV. It commemorated the reunion of Naples and Sicily , and was awarded for valour, military distinction and loyalty. There are four classes: Knights of the Grand Cross, Commanders, Officers and Chevaliers, the decoration varying in size according to the grade.

This Order was discontinued in , with the formation of the present Kingdom of Italy. Two gold swords cross at the angles, and a wreath of green-enamelled laurel connects the arms of the cross and the swords. The decoration of the Knights of the Grand Cross is distinguished from the other grades by a gold pendant of St. George and the dragon. In addition to the "Order of Saint George of the Reunion," gold medals were awarded for heroism in war, and in silver for continued service. These are 28 mm.

The obverse and reverse are the same. The ribbon is blue with yellow edges. Instituted in Naples and Sicily by Don Carlos in Joseph Bonaparte abolished it in , although it continued in the island of Sicily. Authorities differ with regard to the date of the institution of this Order. It has been said that it was founded by Constantine the Great about the year a. This seems the more probable date. The Order came into high repute because of the rules he observed in its distribution, and also because of the large domains he conferred upon it, including the church of the Madonna della Steccata at Parma.

Clark attributes its revival to Charles V. He transferred the Order to Naples when he ascended that throne. It was abolished in Naples by Joseph Bonaparte in but continued in Sicily. Revived in , it remained in existence until the unification of Italy. Owing to its transfer to Sicily , it is frequently classed among the Orders of the Two Sicilies. This indicates that the Order has been continued as a Family Order by the old rulers of those Duchies. The insignia is a red-enamelled gold cross, fleury. On the arms are the letters I. In hoc signo vinces. In the centre is the Labarum, or Standard.

One of the most famous emblems of early Christianity—known as the Labarum , the seal of Constantine, or the Chi-Rho monogram—is the letter X surmounted by a P. The two letters Chi and Rho are assumed to read Chr , a contraction for the name Christ , but the symbol was in use long ages prior to Christianity. There are five classes and the insignia is a cross, composed of four fleurs-de-lis, bound together by their leaves. On the centre of the obverse in a blue-enamelled shield are three gold lilies. On the reverse is a figure of St. Louis surmounted by a gold crown.

The cross for the second class Cavaliers has a silver figure with a silver crown, and the fifth class is of enamelled silver without a crown. The ribbon is light blue and yellow. Founded during the reign of Marie Louise, The medal is silver, 20 mm. On the reverse is the head of Marie Louise and the inscription, M. The ribbon is light blue and light red. When Marinus, the Dalmatian monk, and his companions settled in the Eastern Apennines, in the third century, they little thought they were establishing a community with such a future. For a long time San Marino was something like a buffer state, between hostile Italian dynasties in that vicinity.

At the unification of Italy , , San Marino was still allowed its independence, and today it is the smallest Republic in Europe. Sometimes called the Equestrian Order of San Marino , created on August 13, , by the Council of the Republic, in commemoration of the fifteenth century of its foundation.

The purpose of its founda- tion was to reward those who were prominent in the welfare of the country and its people. The badge or cross, which is surmounted by a gold crown, is a gold-edged, white-enamelled cross moline with a gold ball at the end of each arm. Between the arms are four gold towers. The reverse bears on a gold shield, in the centre, the arms of the country—the three towers. The ribbon is of seven equal stripes, four of blue and three of white.

San Marino. Order of Chivalry of San Marino. The writer has four specimens of this cross. Two have full-faced busts of San Marino , with white hair and beard. One has a younger face to the left, with black beard and hair, while the fourth has a bust in gold, facing to the left, but on a white-enamelled field. Instituted on March 22, This is octagonal in form and of gold, silver and bronze, according to the importance of its award. The ribbon is light blue, edged with red. Sardinia , one of the islands of the Kingdom of Italy , is known to have been settled by the Carthaginians in b.

In the year a. From that time until Sardinia was an Aragonese province. After the union of Aragon and Castile, it became Spanish and so remained until , when it was ceded to Austria by the treaty of Utrecht. In it was given to Victor Amadeus II , Duke of Savoy , in exchange for the island of Sicily , and he became King of Sardinia ; the title of King of Savoy was conferred upon him the same year. This title of King of Sardinia and Savoy continued until the unification of Italy in It is of gold and silver, 38 mm. The ribbon is dark blue. The Duchy of Savoy also included Nice.

This section remained almost continually in the possession of the house of Savoy until At the Peace table, Savoy , the cradle of the house of that name, as well as Nice, was given to France. Of this settlement, Garibaldi is reported to have said, "That man Cavour has made me a foreigner in my own house. Inasmuch as the Kingdom of Italy has been ruled by princes of the house of Savoy , it seems proper to describe, in the subsequent pages, the decorations generally known as Italian Orders of Chivalry and Medals of Distinction. This Order is the highest in rank and most important of all the Italian Decorations.

Authorities differ as to its origin, though many of them give the year as the date of its foundation. His grandfather, Amadeus V, called the Great, assisted the Knights of the Order of Saint John of Jerusalem at Rhodes , and compelled the Turks, under Mahomet II, to abandon their siege of that island in or, as some state, in For this service Amadeus V was presented with a collar, bearing the letters F.

Fortitudo ejus Rhodum tenuit By his bravery Rhodes was held. He was also granted for his Arms, the use of the white cross of the Crusaders, which later became the Cross of Savoy H. Fincham's "Order of St. John of Jerusalem in England ". Although authorities differ as to the exact meaning of these letters F. At that time the name was changed to the Order of the Most Sacred Annunciation. There is but one class of Members—Chevaliers or Knights, whose number, exclusive of the Sovereign and Church Dignitaries and Princes, is limited.

They must also be of the Roman Catholic faith. The insignia consists of a gold medallion on which is a representation of the Annunciation, above which is a dove, symbolizing the Holy Spirit. This is surrounded by a group of symbolic knots of ribbon lacs d'amour , on which are numerous roses, a possible reference to the Mystic Rose. The whole is suspended from a gold chain, composed of alternate knots of ribbon and roses, with the letters F.

The plaque, or star, is similar to the badge, surrounded by eight rays of flame, with the letters F. Italy Savoy. The Order of St. The Order took its name from the patron saint of Savoy. Amadeus VIII conferred this Order on ten of his courtiers when they accompanied him to his retreat at the priory of Ripaille. He was elected Pope in , taking the name of Felix V, but he resigned in and retired to the solitude of Ripaille, where he died in He is buried at Lausanne. Shortly after his death, the Order became dormant.

It was revived in by Duke Emmanuel Philibert of Savoy , to encourage the Catholics to resist the Calvinistic reforms attempted in Savoy. The Dukes of Savoy were Grand Masters. The Order of Saint Lazarus was generally supposed to have been founded about the year , during the earlier crusades, although there was a Fraternity of Ecclesiastical Knights who as early as a.

These were known as the Knights of St. Elias Ashmole , in his "History of the most noble Order of the Garter," London, , writes—"At length, through the incursion of the Barbarians, and Injury of Time, it the order lay extinguished, but was revived when the Latin Princes joyned in a Holy League to recover the Holy Land. In it was united with the Hospitallers of St. There have been many changes in the Order by the various sovereigns, but at present there are five grades: Knights of the Grand Cross, Grand Officers, Commanders, Officers and Chevaliers.

The number of the last grade is unlimited. Many foreigners have been decorated with this grade. The present form of decoration was established by Duke Charles Emmanuel I Maurice, conjoined at the angles with the green Maltese cross of St. Lazarus, which is ball-tipped at the points. The badges of the four higher grades are surmounted by a Royal crown, the size of the cross and of the crown indicating the particular grade. It is suspended by a bright green watered ribbon.

The eight-rayed star of the Order is silver. In the centre is a reproduction of the badge or cross, without the crown. It was intended as further recognition of those officials who had received the cross of the Order of St. Maurice and St. Lazarus, and who had served under the flag " per la durati di dieci lustri " lustri meaning a five year enlistment, and dieci lustri , therefore, fifty years. The Medal is gold, bearing on the obverse the equestrian figure of the patron saint of Savoy , St.

Maurice, holding the flag of the Order in his right hand. Around this are the words. There are two sizes of the medal. The larger, 55 mm. Lazarus, and the smaller, 39 mm. The ribbon is green, the same as for the Order. Its purpose was to reward acts of valour and magnanimity. The Order was modified on September 28, , by Victor Emmanuel II , later king of Italy , who also changed the decoration to the present form.

The cross, which is white-enamelled with curvilinear tips, is edged with gold. It rests upon a wreath of laurel leaves. The reverse medallion of red enamel has two crossed swords, points up, above which is the date , and on either side, the initials V. The cross of the first three classes is surmounted by a Royal crown, that of the fourth class by a trophy of flags and arms, while the fifth class cross has but the suspension ring. The star, which is of silver, has eight rays; in the centre is a duplication of the obverse of the decoration, without the crown. During most of his reign of eighteen years, he was at war with Austria.

Following the revolution of in France , he began war for the Independence of Italy but was compelled to abdicate in after his defeat by the Austrians at Novara. The object of the Order was to reward 'those of other professions, not less useful than that of the army, who have become through long and profound study the ornaments of the State to which they have rendered important service. Military Order of Savoy. There is but one class to the Order, known as Knights, and it is seldom conferred on foreigners. The decoration is a light blue Savoy cross edged with gold.

The medallion on the obverse is white with a gold rim; in the centre are the intials of the founder, C. This is sometimes called the Order of the Iron Crown. Doubtless the origin of the name arose from the fact that at the coronation of Agilif, King of the Lombards — , a crown was used, composed of gold and precious stones, inset with a band of iron which was said to have been forged from a nail of the true Cross.

Tradition says that this crown was kept in the Cathedral of Monza and removed to Mantua in When Napoleon I became King of Italy in , it is said he was crowned with this crown. Civil Order of Savoy. The grade of Knight or Chevalier is frequently conferred on foreigners. In the blue-enamelled medallion is a gold crown.

On the reverse medallion is the crowned eagle of Savoy. On its breast is a red shield, bearing the white cross of Savoy. The ribbon is of red with a white stripe in the centre. This device is surmounted by a crowned eagle bearing the Arms of Savoy on its breast. The star of the Grand Officer is an eight-pointed silver star, on which is a reproduction of the Cross.

Order of the Crown of Italy. It is awarded to those prominent or proficient in the Industrial, Commercial or Agricultural work of the Kingdom or of its Colonies. The decoration consists of a green-enamelled Savoy cross, edged with gold. The ribbon is dark green with a red stripe in the centre. There is but one class to this order, and its award carries with it no particular privileges.

Its purpose was to reward those deserving of especial recognition who were prominent in the work of the Colonies. The decoration consists of a white-enamelled star of five points, edged with gold and ball-tipped. On the obverse medallion of red, is the gold monogram V. A green-enamelled circle has at the bottom of it The ribbon is red, with narrow, white and green bands on either side. All grades of the star have a crown above, except that of Chevalier, which is plain.

The plaque, which is worn by the first and second classes only, consists of thirty-five silver rays, on which is the uncrowned star described above. If the officers have served forty years and the troops twenty-five years, the Roman characters vary accordingly, and the cross has a crown above. The ribbon is green, with a wide white stripe in the centre. Colonial Order of the Star of Italy. This was awarded for individual acts of bravery, and was struck in gold and in silver. Victor Emmanuel I revived the award in , at the time of the downfall of Napoleon I , but abolished it in August of that year when he created the Military Order of Savoy.

When Charles Albert was King of Sardinia and Savoy , he reinstituted the medal in , for acts of valour not sufficiently important to warrant the Military Order of Savoy. From the time of its inception to , it was always awarded in gold or silver, but in that year Humbert I decreed that a bronze medal should be given for acts of valour of a lesser degree. It is frequently called the Sardinian Medal of Valour. The earliest model was 38 mm. About the time of the Crimean war, the design was changed. The size was reduced to 33 mm. The obverse has the Arms of Savoy , surmounted by a crown in an oval.

The reverse has two laurel branches tied with a ribbon, with a space in the centre for the recipient's name. The name of his campaign is placed on the outer edge. Victor Emmanuel II caused a number of these medals, in both gold and silver, to be given to the British and French troops who took part in the Crimean war. Two of these are in my collection, and have been awarded to Frenchmen.

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The second specimen has the same words en - graved. This was for the war with Austria. Gifford, of Boston, has in his collection a variant of this Medal of Valour. It is but 25 mm. Many of these medals have been awarded to the men of other countries who have assisted Italy in her campaigns.

It was given in gold, silver and bronze. Under a decree of April 29, , Humbert I authorized a bronze medal also.


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These are awarded to civilians for per- sonal acts of courage and valour, such as rescues at fires and at sea. The medal is 34 mm. The reverse has a wreath of oak leaves, with space in the centre for the recipient's name. The ribbon for this medal is of the Italian National colours. Three equal stripes—red, white and green. Instituted in March, ; modified in , and again by Victor Emmanuel II in , to reward the men of the Navy for heroism.

In , Humbert I established three grades, gold, silver and bronze, according to the character of the award. On the reverse is an oak wreath less full than that of the Military medal of Valour with a reserve in the centre for the name of recipient and mention of the act for which the medal is awarded. This decoration was first instituted on September 13, , by Victor Emmanuel II and was called " La Medaglia di Benemerenza per i Benemeriti della salute pubblica " Its purpose was to reward the services of volunteers in epidemics of contagious diseases and those who took part in other ways beneficial to the health and safety of the public.

It is given in gold, silver and bronze. A reserve at the centre is left for the name of the recipient. The ribbon is light blue, edged with black. This medal was authorized on July 14, , and altered on January 1, It was established to honour the veterans of the war of who guarded the tomb of Victor Emmanuel II. It is 30 mm. The ribbon is blue with a white stripe in the centre, with one edge green and the other red.

A specimen of this design is in my collection. Authorized by Royal Decree on March 8, This decoration is awarded to those, not in the Navy, who have risked their lives to save others from drowning, or shipwreck, or for other forms of personal valour at sea. It is issued by the Ministry of the Marine. The medal is in silver and in bronze only and is not to be worn on the person. Authorized by a Decree of May 6, This medal was awarded to all persons, including many foreigners, who from philanthropic or charitable motives went to the relief of the inhabitants of Sicily and Southern Calabria at the time of the earthquake of December 2 8, It is 34 mm.

The ribbon is green with a white stripe on either side. The ribbon for this has 5 stripes, alternately white and green. The writer possesses an interesting medal, for the official issuance of which no authority has been found. It is of silver, 33 mm. Under the bust, the letters S. The ribbon is dark blue with a yellow stripe each side. It is believed that these medals were given to the veteran soldiers of Charles Albert who made the pilgrimage to his last resting place.

18 marzo 1848 le cinque giornate di Milano

In its church rest the remains of the Princes of Savoy. Charles Albert — died at Oporto in His body was buried on the heights of Superga. Italy later recognized his devotion, and pilgrims still journey to his tomb. Italy was not backward in awarding what are commonly known as Campaign or Service Medals but which the Italian authorities style " Medaglie Commemorative. It was authorized on October 22, , and was issued to the Piedmont troops serving during that campaign under General La Marmora. The medal is of silver, 35 mm. The ribbon is light blue with a narrow gold edge.

Some authorities assign a ribbon of the Italian National colours—red, white and green. This medal was issued to commemorate the dethronement of Ferdinand II and the union of the ancient Kingdom of Sicily with the Kingdom of Italy. As a result of that insurrection, Garibaldi with his thousand troops landed at Marsala, and in three weeks was master of Messina. The medal 30 mm. The ribbon is red, with one white and one green edge. Here might appropriately be mentioned a unique decoration. On January 9, , General Turr went to the island of Caprera to carry to that great Italian patriot, General Giuseppe Garibaldi — , the Star of Honour which his famous thousand companions had offered him.

It is a gold star of seven points, loosely set with diamonds. In the centre on a blue-enamelled field in letters of gold is ARTURO a star which is said to protect any one with an ideal. On this is super-imposed a gold Trinacria , the emblem of Sicily. This was the only decoration which that great General consented to wear; and after his death at Caprera on June 2, , the star was given by his sons to the Quirinal Museum in Rome where it may now be seen.

Issued by the city of Palermo, and authorized by the Italian government in The obverse has in the centre an eagle with raised wings, standing on a fillet inscribed S. The medal was issued in silver and in bronze. The ribbon is bright red, with a gold stripe each side, and on the face of the ribbon is fastened a silver Trinacria , the emblem of Sicily.

This decoration was authorized in It is of silver, and 32 mm. The ribbon is composed of six narrow stripes of the National colours—green, white and red. Bars or barrets are issued in silver to be attached to the ribbon, as follows: — war with Austria , — Crimean War , war with Austria , — Garibaldi's expedition in Sicily and the Campaign in central Italy , war with Austria , Campaign against Rome , and Capture of Rome. This medal was authorized in It is 32 mm. The ribbon has a broad green stripe with a white and a red stripe on both sides.

Unlike the British campaign medals, few of the Italian medals are inscribed on the edges. Created on November 3, ; sometimes called the "Medal for Abyssinia. The medal was issued in bronze, 32 mm. The ribbon is red with blue borders. To all those taking part in this expedition, and to those who remained as guardians of the territory until the end of the year , this medal was given.

It is of bronze, 32 mm. The ribbon is yellow, with four dark blue stripes. Another medal for China is exactly like the above, excepting that the reverse bears the word CINA only. This was given to the troops and sailors who served in China from December 31, to April 1, The ribbon is similar. But a few years ago Italy and Turkey were fighting desperately for the control of Tripoli, a section of Northern Africa which had been under Turkish rule for several centuries. It was at this time that Germany all but precipitated a European war by insisting upon certain methods of settlement.

Fortunately conflict was averted by the treaty of Lausanne. To commemorate the triumph over Turkey and to honor those engaged there, a silver medal of 32 mm. The medal was issued to all men of the Army and Navy who took part in the operations against the Ottoman Empire, whether in Africa or in Turkish territory. The ribbon is of six narrow blue and five narrow red stripes of equal width.

The treaty of Lausanne did not stop all war operations on the part of Italy. The tribes of the newly acquired Colonial possessions continued to make trouble. To reward the troops taking part in such campaigns, a silver medal of 32 mm. The ribbon is of the same design and colour. Authorized in It was awarded to those worthy of official recognition during the World War, but whose service was not of sufficient importance to warrant the Medal of Military Valour.

The Decoration is of bronze, 38 mm. On the lower arm of the cross is an upright sword entwined with a branch of oak. The reverse has a star in the centre surrounded by rays. The ribbon is dark blue with two white stripes. Created on July 29, and made from captured Austrian cannon. It is bronze, 32 mm. The ribbon has eighteen narrow stripes of green, white and red—six of each colour.

Bars were issued to be worn on the ribbon to designate the years of service in the war. This is a reproduction of a book published before This book may have occasional imperfections such as missing or blurred pages, poor pictures, errant marks, etc. We believe this work is culturally important, and despite the imperfections, have elected to bring it back into print as Photographs of over garments selected from the Museum's permanent collection illuminate each of the featured Even among the mighty mountain men, Jim Bridger was a towering figure.

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